Andrew Johnson was born on December 29, 1808, Raleigh, North Carolina. He was died on July 31, 1875, near Elizabethton, Carter County, Tennessee. He was an American politician, the seventeenth president of the United States (1865-1869).
Andrew Johnson was born in a poor family, never went to school, learned to read and write independently. With ten years he was an apprentice tailor. In 1826 his family moved to Greeneville (TN), where Andrew opened his own sewing workshop. He was not yet 21 years old when he led the union workers. Andrew Johnson actively in public life, he was elected mayor. As a member of the state legislature (1835-1843), he represented the interests of small farmers.
In the late 1830s, he joined the Democratic Party. Later sat in the House of Representatives (1843-1853), was the Governor of Tennessee (1853-1857). Elected to the U.S. Senate (1857-1862), Johnson did not approve of agitation against slavery, but in 1860, after the election of President Abraham Lincoln, who actively opposed the secession of the southern states and the creation of the Confederate States of America. He was the only senator Southerner who remained loyal to the United States. During the Civil War, Johnson was the military governor of Tennessee (1862-1865), who occupied the federals. In 1864, he ran for U.S. vice president on a single list with President Lincoln. Andrew Johnson‘s candidacy was to show unity northerners and southerners loyal. Vice-President Johnson was in March – April 1865, and then after the assassination of Abraham Lincoln became the master of the White House (1865-1869).
After the victory of the Northerners in the Civil War, May 29, 1865 the President signed the Amnesty Proclamation – an act of forgiveness of Confederates, but a few leaders. During the Reconstruction of the South Andrew Johnson maintained a moderate policy, advocated the adoption of the southern states back to the U.S. for mild conditions, requiring only reforms in the field of civil rights for freed slaves. Against the President’s policies were Radical Republicans. In 1867, the President vetoed the law on the establishment of the Freedmen “s Bureau and other measures to ensure the rights of blacks than angered both moderate and radical Republicans.
Responding they enacted in office (Tenure of Office Act, 1867), which prohibited the president dismiss senior officials without the consent of the Senate. In 1868, deliberately violating the law, Johnson fired Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton – a prominent representative of the radical Republicans. Then House of Representatives for the first time in U.S. history, expressed distrust of the president. Subsequently, the hearing of the case in the Senate charges against the president was not sufficiently substantiated, for impeachment lacked only one vote. Andrew Johnson remained in office until 1869, but lost the ability to influence policy case. After retirement, he returned to Tennessee, and shortly before his death, was re-elected to the U.S. Senate.