Richard Nixon full name Richard Milhous Nixon, born January 9, 1913, Yorba Linda, CA – April 22, 1994, New York is an American politician, the 37th U.S. president (1969-1974, Republican Party, Vice-President (1953-1961), one of the leaders of the period of detente in the early 1970s. In 1973, the Nixon administration signed an agreement on cessation of hostilities and the restoration of peace in Vietnam. He retired to the threat of prosecution for Watergate.
Richard Nixon received a law degree from the College of California Witter (1934) and the Faculty of Law at Duke University in Durham (North Carolina, 1937). In 1937-1942 was engaged in the practice of law in California, was a co-owner of one of the law firms. During the Second World War, in January-August 1942, he worked in a government department for emergency measures, and then served in the U.S. Navy with the rank of lieutenant commander. Nixon’s political career began in 1946, when the list of the Republican Party, he was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives from California. In 1948, he was re-elected to Congress. As a member of the congressional committee on Un-American Activities, Nixon was an active member of the anti-communist hysteria, known for his investigation into the Alger Hiss, a former State Department official who was accused of having links with the Communist Party USA. In 1950, Nixon was elected U.S. senator from California. During the tense election campaign he played the anti-communist prejudices of voters, in particular completely groundless called rival Communist sympathizers. During this period, the nickname Nixon – (Tricky Dick).
In 1952 he was nominated for vice-president from the Republican Party. Presidential candidate of the Republican made popular General Dwight Eisenhower. During the election campaign, Richard Nixon made a televised address to the nation, which denied the allegations of financial impropriety. The speech has become known as the “Checkers speech” on behalf of the dog, which Nixon had received as a gift. In the election of Eisenhower and Nixon won a landslide victory. As Vice-President Nixon actually directed the Republican Party, often traveled to foreign travel, visiting in the years 1952-1960 from 56 countries, including the Soviet Union. In 1956, Eisenhower and Nixon again won the presidential election. Nixon’s influence public affairs were very significant, given the fact that President Eisenhower pursued a health problem.
In the presidential election of 1960, Richard Nixon was nominated by the Republican Party candidate for president, but lost in a bitter struggle representative Democrat John F. Kennedy. In 1961 he returned to California, took a responsible position in a large law firm in Los Angeles. In 1962 he tried unsuccessfully to become the governor of California, and then said he was leaving politics. In 1963 he moved to New York, where he became a partner in the law firm “Nixon, Mudge, Rose, Guthrie, and Alexander Mitchell End”; at the same time was a member of the boards of directors of several major companies. Reason to depart from the policy of Nixon was not only his failure in the elections, but also the fact that he was the leader of the centrist current in the Republican Party, and in the early 1960s among the Republicans prevailed right mood, which allowed the reactionary policies of Barry Goldwater get his promotion to President of the Republican Party (1964). Goldwater’s crushing defeat in the presidential elections, Republicans made the mood swing in the direction of more moderate views. Created the conditions for the return of Richard Nixon‘s leadership in the Republican Party, and in 1968 he again acted as a presidential candidate for the Republicans. In the presidential election of him, with a slight majority, managed to defeat the Democratic candidate Hubert Humphrey. Nixon’s victory contributed to its “southern strategy” – the desire to win over conservatives in the South and the West, traditionally voted for the Democratic Party.
In the late 1960s, the U.S. experienced a sharp inside the political crisis, exacerbated by the Vietnam War and the economic recession, which has grown into a depression. Soberly assessing U.S. capabilities in the international arena, the new Republican administration in 1969-1970 put forward “Nixon Doctrine”, which aims to reduce the direct participation of the U.S. armed forces in “local wars”, arranged by U.S. allies’ material costs in the fight against the pro-American movements, while maintaining obligations of the military blocs and bilateral agreements. In relations with the socialist countries, Richard Nixon had introduced the concept of the transition from the “era of confrontation to the era of negotiation.”
In these circumstances, Nixon undertook significant steps to normalize relations with the major powers of the socialist camp – the Soviet Union and China. In February 1972, Nixon made a visit to Beijing. He became the first U.S. president to visit China. The visit marked the end of the period of confrontation between the two countries. In May and June of that year, Richard Nixon traveled to Moscow – the first official visit to the USSR, the U.S. president. During the visit, an agreement was signed on the limitation of strategic arms (START-1), which represented the culmination of negotiations that led the United States and the Soviet Union in 1969. As a result of numerous years of 1972-1974 in the Soviet-American summit meetings, agreements were signed based on the principle of peaceful coexistence of states with different social systems, and to prevent the danger of nuclear war, strategic arms limitation, the development of economic, scientific and technical cooperation between the USSR and the USA.
In the presidential election of 1972, Nixon was able to get his re-election for a new term in a landslide defeating Democratic candidate George McGovern. Contributed to this victory and the revival of the U.S. economy, but that the presidential administration had to devalue the dollar (in 1971 and 1973). In domestic policy, Richard Nixon proclaimed the doctrine of the “new federalism” and took steps to reform the system of social protection, the fight against inflation and the energy crisis that hit the United States as a result of rising world oil prices. Trying to stop the inflation of the presidential administration had to impose unprecedented peacetime system of control over the level of wages and prices. The Nixon administration increased funding of federal agencies to comply with civil rights laws had to establish the Occupational Safety (Occupational Safety and Health Administration, OSHA) and the Agency for Environmental Protection.
In the early years of Richard Nixon‘s presidency was still hoping to complete the Vietnam War for the U.S. favorable outcome. Reducing the number of American troops in South Vietnam, he at the same time, renewed bombing of North Vietnam. In 1970, escalated the Vietnam War, Cambodia and Laos, which caused a new wave of protests in the U.S. Convinced of the futility of further fighting in Indochina, the U.S. President has authorized the Secretary of State Henry Kissinger to begin peace talks with North Vietnam. In January 1973, an agreement was signed to end the war and restoring peace in Vietnam, although the military actions in Vietnam lasted for two years. The Richard Nixon administration conducted subversive activities against the coalition government of Chilean socialist President Salvador Allende, which led to his overthrow in a military coup in 1973. Nixon’s convincing victory in the presidential election in 1972 was nullified by the Watergate affair, which became public knowledge.
The investigation attempts to install listening devices in the headquarters of the Democratic Party have been identified violations of law Richard Nixon supporters and members of his administration (bribery, threats, perjury). In 1974, the Court ruled that Nixon knew about trying to hide the crime at the “Watergate.” House Judiciary Committee recommended that Congress impeach Nixon from the duties of the President. August 9, 1974, making sure that he does not avoid impeachment, the President announced his resignation, becoming the first U.S. president to the overthrow of the way. Although the guilty verdict against him had not been imposed, the new president, Gerald Ford announced an amnesty of his predecessor. However, Richard Nixon was prohibited from the practice of law. Later he studied the socio-political and literary work, wrote his memoirs and several books on international politics.